A. What to
include in your citations:
a. Any material you directly quote
b. Any material
you have directly paraphrased but not necessarily
B. A citation
refers to a specific quote or paraphrased idea that you have borrowed
from another author.
Citations are made in addition to a general
There are many ways to do a
citation. I don't care which style you use, as long as it is consistent
and I can use it to find a reference. Here are two common
Style 1: MLA Style
The easiest citation
format is suitable for essays that have only a few sources. After each
quote or specific paraphrase, simply put the author's name and page
number of the reference in brackets at the end of the
- "... and maintained his allegiance to the Crown" (Smith 456).
- There's usually no end punctuation used from the
quote, unless it's a question mark.
last name of the author is given. Do not use an editor's name unless you lack a specific author.
- The page number of the author's article/book is also
- The end punctuation comes after the
bracket, and all original periods, exclamation marks, and commas should be excluded. The exception is the question mark [?], which should remain inside the quotation mark if it's in the original.
Any reference to
the same author's article immediately after the first quote is treated
- "... his reputation was
If the next
reference is to the same author's article but with a different
page, you cite the quote this way:
- "... but he was not going to
sit " (ibid 462-463) and allow the enemy to win.
If a new author
comes in between any of these references, you have to go back to the
last name and page number again. "Ibid" only refers to the
author immediately preceding it.
For an essay or major project, it is essential that you have a bibliography at the end so the reader will know which
article or book the author has written.
Style 2: Chicago Style
A more formal citation
format is suitable for essays that have many different sources. This
form of citation involves a superscript number after the quote, and a
formal citation similar to a bibliographical entry. This citation may go
on the bottom of the page (i.e. a footnote)
or on a separate page after the essay but before the bibliography (i.e.
an endnote). I find that an endnote page is
easier than footnotes, but if you want to try the latter, be my
So, at the "end of a quote"2, make a superscript number (or a number in
brackets) and create a citation like this:
gggg2 G. Mary Smith,
Fun With Writing Essays: The Secret of Making Excellent Essays and
Reports. (New York: Times, 2000) 245-246.
[Article in Journal]
"Constitutional Reform or Silence?" Canadian Political Debate.
(5, 2) 37.
"Can We Trust the Parliament?" in The Canadian Political Reader.
(Toronto: Random House, 2000) 245.
As you can see, the format is somewhat streamlined
compared to a bibliography, and you also indent the first line (rather
than the second line) and add the specific page number at the end. You
can use "ibid" like above.